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KP Police training makes a difference

ISLAMABAD: A Directorate of Training headed by an officer of the rank of Deputy Inspector General of Police was established in Central Police to supervise the training affairs.

To impart training of different modules, six specialised schools have been established in two years and these training schools include Police School of Intelligence; Police School of Public Disorder Management; Police School of Tactics; Police School of Explosive Handling; and Police School of Information Technology.

Promotion from one rank to another has been linked with successful completion of prescribed specialised trainings. These courses which were hitherto non-existent are now mandatory for every officer and advanced course for promotion of the rank of DSP and junior commission course for promotion to the rank of SP have been introduced in collaboration with Provincial Public Service Academy.

The recruits at Police Training Schools receive training in swimming, martial arts, un-armed combat, rescue operations in natural calamities, stop and search operation. Along with operational training tactics, special attention has been focused on investigative skills.

Police School of Investigation imparts recruits and officers with training in crime scene investigation course, cellular forensic course, case file management course, hot spot policing course, IT based skills investigation course, DNA, and medico-legal report analysis course.

KP police is the first police force in the country, which has a dedicated Elite Trained Women Commando Unit. The success of every reform initiative is contingent upon its sustainability, supervision, and ability to evolve.

To streamline Intelligence–based policing, modern day technique of intelligence collection through both human and technological means, KPK Police is providing training to enable officers to conduct undercover operations and ground check and to train police officers in modern intelligence and surveillance techniques. To enable officers to establish information nets in the area of responsibility, to facilitate continuous flow of information and intelligence.

KPK Police adopted various IT oriented initiatives, which include digitalization of FIR, Incorporation of CNIC and Cell number of the accused and the complainant in the FIRs. Criminal Record Verification System, Identity Verification System, Vehicle Verification System, Geo-Tagged Crime Scene and Hot-Spot Policing.

MoUs to extended cooperation in police training were signed by KP police with GI Khan University of Science and Technology, Sarhad University of Science and Technology, Peshawar; Preston University, Kohart; University of Peshawar; Khan Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan; Khyber Medical College, Peshawar; Saidu Sharif Medical College, Swat. In contrast to 2014, a 56 percent decrease in incidents of terrorism in KP was witnessed and the year 2015 proved to be most successful as the number of terrorists attacks was the lowest then during the past six years.
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Public Safety begins implementation of armed status

At the second meeting of the Public Safety Review Board on December 13, members reviewed and approved the University policies and procedures with regard to the issuance of firearms to Department of Public Safety (DPS) officers. The minutes from the first and second meetings can be viewed at the Public Safety Review Board’s website.

As part of the implementation of the 2016 Security Commission Report recommendations, effective January 3, the chief, deputy chief, and commander of investigations in DPS now each carry an issued firearm while on duty on the University’s campuses. Additionally, two DPS lieutenants in their capacity as senior firearms instructors have been issued firearms. All of these five leaders have completed the required training outlined in the Security Commission Report.

Moving forward, effective February 6, 30 newly trained DPS officers will carry a firearm while on duty at the University’s Medical Center. These 30 sworn officers—representing about one-quarter of Public Safety’s total force—will be divided among the patrol and supervisory shifts at the Medical Center to address any safety concerns on a 24-hours-a-day, seven-days-a-week basis, especially within the hospital’s emergency department. These officers have completed required background and psychological evaluations. They also have undergone extensive law enforcement firearms safety and proficiency training and will attend ongoing competency testing.

Throughout the year, the Public Safety Review Board will continue its oversight of the University’s armed officer program.
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Brazil: A look into Latin America’s largest startup ecosystem

In September 2012, Forbes published a lengthy feature heralding Brazil’s arrival as “one of the most entrepreneurial countries in the world.” At the time, the South American giant had been powering through a global recession, with growth rates that drew the envy even of its surging companions in the emerging-market bloc.

Roughly 25 percent of Brazil’s workforce was self-employed in some capacity, and small businesses were accounting for two-thirds of private sector job creation in a rapidly diversifying economy that had already produced record reductions in poverty and unemployment.

This was a cause of tremendous enthusiasm, and Forbes was far from the only one to take notice.

The details of Brazil’s decline from that high-water mark have been recounted many times in the last four years. Political corruption, fiscal mismanagement, falling commodity prices and stagnation in China converged to bring about a dramatic reversal. Overnight, Brazil went from historic boom to the country’s worst economic crisis in decades. With so much negative attention on Brazil’s many and serious problems, it’s easy to overlook a counterintuitive truth about the country’s burgeoning startup scene: The overall outlook has not changed.

With more than 200 million people, Brazil is still the most populous country in South America, as well as its largest market. Internet penetration and use are still high — Brazil trails only the United States in total Facebook, Twitter and YouTube users — and the country still has more mobile devices than human inhabitants. The only Portuguese-speaking country in Latin America, Brazil is still uniquely positioned to capitalize on regional markets and is artificially devoid of international competition.

But big impediments remain. Economic downturn has done nothing to diminish the notorious labyrinths of red tape Brazil’s indecipherable bureaucracy erects around even the most straightforward certifications, transactions and licensing processes. At 14.25 percent, interest rates are high for the returns your average Silicon Valley VC fund could expect to see on a given portfolio, rendering entrepreneurship needlessly risky for many investors who might otherwise be interested in backing promising businesses. Antiquated labor laws and tax codes, crumbling or non-existent roads and an overburdened university system are just some of the longstanding barriers entrepreneurs continue to face in the country.

Yet Brazilians are famous for innovating around inefficiencies, and their own attitudes tell a different story than the dire headlines of the business press. Fundacity — a network for startups and investors — has found that education and healthcare, two of Brazil’s most chronically troubled sectors, are precisely the areas investors are most keen on. With the national mood plunging toward despair in the first semester of 2015, Brazilian accelerators, VC funds and angel networks nevertheless backed at least 195 startups between them.

Those combined investments accounted for just under 7 percent of the total capital taken in by startups that semester, which suggests something else about Brazilian entrepreneurialism foreign observers would do well to make note of: the potential remains enormous.

Much needs to happen before that potential can be realized, but as Juliana Vasconcelos, from Brazil’s government investment agency Apex, put it at the Venture Capital in Brazil Forum in Menlo Park this past September, “crisis creates opportunity.” There’s as much, if not more, reason to take stock of the Brazilian startup economy now as there was in 2012, when the country was at its most ascendant.

Origin story

The story of Brazil’s startup scene starts long before those of most of its South American counterparts.

TOTVS was founded in 1983 and has been a constant presence in the national ecosystem ever since. Today it supplies business software to around 60 percent of Brazil’s small and medium-sized businesses, making it by far the most successful Brazilian tech company, and the country’s 22nd most valuable brand overall. The largest software company in South America — the company now boasts 26,000 active users and 10,000 employees — TOTVS also claims to be the only one with a proprietary software development platform.

1983 was also the year that the Brazilian government, still operating under military rule at the time, created the Associação Brasileira de Private Equity & Venture Capital (ABVCAP). Other government initiatives to foment entrepreneurship have fizzled out, but ABVCAP is still active, organizing networking and promotional events like the annual Brazil Breakfast, set to take place in New York in late September, and Brazilian Venture Capital Conference, set to take place in São Paolo in late October.

It took many years for the private sector to start developing a significant venture capital presence of its own. But in 2000, Inseed Investments, Inventta consultancy, Tropos Lab and a biotech firm called Ecovec came together to form the Instituto Inovação Group, the foremost business generator in Brazilian innovation.

By 2002, the local scene had developed to the point that the outside world was looking to get involved. Google picked São Paulo for the site of its first Latin America office, a decision vindicated in the steady stream of talent that continues to flow through its doors from across the region. Three years later, TOTVS went public on the New Market of the Stock Exchange of São Paolo, becoming the first Latin American IT company to IPO.

Brazil’s first major acquisition followed soon after, in 2006, when a South African conglomerate purchased a 91 percent stake in Buscapé, a compare-and-shop e-commerce site. At $374 million, the exit, still one of the country’s largest, helped encourage further investment in the market. In 2009, Cassio Spina, an entrepreneur, founded Anjos do Brasil, a nonprofit angel network dedicated to keeping the trend going. In 2011, Redpoint Ventures, a California-based VC fund, and e.ventures raised $130 million to invest in early-stage Brazilian companies.

Brazilians have long since identified the issues that need to be addressed in order for the country to make the next step as a driver of innovation.
The 2012 Forbes article came out as the Brazilian startup scene seemed poised to make a major leap. In 2014, the transport app Easy Taxi raised $40 million in Series D funding — from Phenomen Venture and Tengelmann Ventures, among others — for an expansion into Latin America and Asia. Based on the innovative model from Start-Up Chile, Start-Up Brasil launched later that year, with a mandate to attract foreign entrepreneurs to the local consumer market and foment domestic entrepreneurial culture. Backed by $78 million from the government, it was meant to be the culmination all the momentum Brazil had been building.

Within two years, of course, that momentum would be largely gone, and Start-Up Brasil along with it. But measured against the collapsing expectations, the Brazilian startup scene performed impressively. In the past year, Google’s Brazilian campus — Google São Paulo — announced its first batch of resident startups. YouTube Gaming and Instagram for Business have both planted flags in the country. An array of national businesses have completed impressive fundraisers, from the pet-sitting marketplace DogHero ($3.1 million) to the B2B sales software firm Exact Sales ($1.2 million).

São Paolo: The financial capital

Depending on who you ask, São Paulo is either what would happen if New York threw up on Los Angeles, or what would happen if Los Angeles threw up on New York. Either way, it’s big.

How big? If it were it’s own country, São Paulo would be the eighth largest in South America. From above, the city seems to sprawl out and up at once.

The other part of that analogy is money. São Paulo is not just the financial capital of Brazil, it’s also its primary center of commerce, fashion, food, music, industry and sport. As goods and services replace factories as the core of its economy, São Paulo is expected to leap from the tenth to sixth largest urban GDP in the world. Foreign businesses go there when they want to open shop in Brazil. Brazilian businesses go there when they want to project themselves on the national scale or abroad.

It should come as no surprise that São Paulo is by far the most mature startup scene in Brazil. Even entrepreneurs from rival cities will tell you that the majority of Brazil’s startups are concentrated in the city.

Transitive talent is one of the main advantages São Paulo has in that respect. Established tech companies like Google, Uber and Airbnb, to say nothing of established corporations in general, have their Brazilian headquarters in the city, and when employees get bored or inspiration strikes, they often leave to start companies of their own. By the same token, entrepreneurs looking to recruit experienced teams have no shortage of options from which to choose. The largest startups in the country, such as real estate startup VivaReal, which has raised approximately $75 million to date, are based in the city.

São Paulo is by far the most mature startup scene in Brazil.
The companies themselves get involved, too, whether through patronizing events or providing a steady demand for B2B innovation. The largest and second largest private banks in the country have both set up entire divisions to interact with São Paulo’s thriving fintech subsector. Visa and IBM are major sponsors of Startup Farm, a leading accelerator with more than $100 million invested in upwards of 200 startups. Brands as varied as Embraco, a refrigeration technology and production company, and Natura, a cosmetics label, have created similar programs to invest in startups operating in their respective spaces. Impact-accelerators such as Artemisia and the nonprofit Endeavor play important roles in the ecosystem.

But the São Paolo startup culture also gets by just fine on its own. Together, co-working spaces like CUBO, plug.co and Impact Hub; accelerators like ACE, which has modeled itself as a growth-oriented version of Y Combinator; investment firms like Monashees, Kaszek Ventures, DGF, Redpoint eVentures, SP Ventures, Antera, 500 Startups, BBI Financial, and Bonanza Investments; and government-led initiatives like Innovatech, which provides online mentorship to around 300 startups, and SEBRAE, which focuses on small business more generally, form a well-rounded, autonomous ecosystem that maintains a surprising level of cohesion, in spite of the sheer size of the city. Organizers launched the inaugural CASE conference at a time when most of the national economy was in belt-tightening mode. This fall, they expect 8,000 entrepreneurs from 2,000 startups to attend.

Leaders in the São Paolo’s ecosystem include David Velez of NuBank, Brian Requarth of Viva Real, Fabricio Bloisi of Movile, Paulo Veras of 99 Taxis, Jorge Pacheco of Plug, Guilherme Junqueira of Gama Academy, Flavio Pripas of CUBO, Romero Rodriguez of Redpoint, Ana Fontes of RME, angel investor Silvia Valadares, Tony Celestino of UpGlobal, André Barrence of Google Campus, João Kepler of Bossa Nova Investments, Felipe Matos of Startup Farm, Carolina Morandini of Wayra and Michel Porcino from the São Paolo Mayor’s Office.

San Pedro Valley

It’s rare that you can trace the origins of a given startup scene with such precision, but the chosen moniker for Belo Horizonte gives it all away. Aside from the usual play on the northern California tech-mecca, “San Pedro Valley” draws its name from the São Pedro, the neighborhood that birthed many of Belo Horizonte’s first and most successful startups.

What set this core, pioneering group of entrepreneurs apart was not just their businesses but their commitment to giving back, in ways both concrete and abstract, to build a real ecosystem.

Principal among these efforts has been the Brazilian Startup Association, a unique entity started by Gustavo Caetano — the CEO of Samba Tech, the online video platform that recently added to its regional holdings with a new satellite location in Seattle, its second in the United States — and three other local leaders. Conceived as a facilitator of intra-entrepreneurial exchange and a lobby group advocating on behalf of forward-thinking startup policy in Brazil, the association has grown to include more than 4,000 member startups and 38,000 entrepreneurs throughout the country.

Other important community spaces include Hora Extra BH, a regular meetup, Coolwork, a coworking office and Aceleradora, an accelerator. Google has its national R&D office in the city, and in 2012, the city government inaugurated BH-tec, a digital park that caters to entrepreneurs in particular. Another government program, Minas Digital, an offshoot of the state Ministry of Technology, aims to have supported 100,000 local entrepreneurs by 2025. Toward that goal, it sponsored Belo Horizonte’s first StartupWeek last year, which featured more than 70 events across the city. Additional leaders in the city include Rodrigo Cartacho of Sympla, João Resende of Hotmart, Mateus Lana of SmarttBot and Roberta Vasconcellos of BeerOrCoffee.

Integral to the city’s startup culture is its large student population. With four top universities, including Minas Gerais Federal University, one of Brazil’s most dependable sources of IT talent, Belo Horizonte has the feel and energy of a college town, but the size and ceiling of a major urban hub. Lots of ambitious young people still leave for São Paulo, lured either by job or fundraising prospects. But in the near future, it’s easy to envision a reverse on the brain drain. Belo Horizonte is cheaper, friendlier and less inundated with traffic. Basically, it’s in many respects a nicer place to live, and plenty of businesses are finding it a prosperous place to put down roots, as well.

Rio de Janeiro and Florianópolis

As far as living conditions go, you won’t find a better place in Brazil, or anywhere else for that matter, than Rio de Janeiro. The stark, granite cliffs, lush jungle canopy and picturesque beaches get plenty of attention as is, but there’s still something to be said for having the option to brainstorm at a café overlooking the ocean or team-build during a hike into the mountains.

Regular events like FuckUp Nights, Geeks on Beer, Circuito Startup and Rio Info have learned to take advantage of the city’s stunning landscape and vibrant cultural offerings. A fairly comprehensive list of activities can be found on Startup Digest.

For better or for worse, the city’s transformation in recent years has been specifically directed toward creating a more attractive environment for a young, cosmopolitan professional class. Government programs to improve security, 4G connectivity and transportation have in turn encouraged major private investments in the tech sector. Cisco, in conjunction with local authorities, is devoting $500 million to a project that includes a venture capital fund and co-development facilities. Located in the heart of downtown revitalization, NEX has become the largest co-working space in all of Latin America.

Rio isn’t the only beachside tourist hotspot at the forefront of the Brazilian startup scene.

In light of the city government’s emphasis on attracting foreign investment and tourism, it’s encouraging to see entrepreneurs use tech innovation — the area for which Rio’s startup scene is best known — to address lingering social issues. Founded in 2011 by Leonardo Eloi and others, Meu Rio (My Rio) is a digital civic engagement platform that sends alerts and facilitates a wide-ranging political discourse between diverse sectors of society. In a city where police violence has long led to distrust among the general population, the Igarape Institute has worked to develop “smart policing” mobile technologies to improve transparency. And, like a localized, family oriented Groupon, Clubinho de Ofertas offers mothers affordable shopping and activity options.
Cariocas, Rio’s largest startup group that counts several hundred members, hosts regular events and today is led by a group of entrepreneurs, including Danilo Neves de Martins and Ricardo Motta of Hostintown. Investors in the city include Acrux Capital, ArpexCapital and Valor Capital, which play an important role alongside organizations such as Startup Rio and FAPERJ. Additional leaders in Rio include Gabriel Gaspar of Nibo, Gustavo Mota of We Do Logos, Ricardo Barros of The Pareto Group, Bernard De Luna of 3Days and Rodrigo Salvador of Passei Direto.

But Rio isn’t the only beachside tourist hotspot at the forefront of the Brazilian startup scene. Florianópolis has made a big play to assert itself in the tech economy, and, in recent years, it’s payed off. According to the state government, 600 companies now contribute to a robust startup sector that has grown an average of 15 percent year-over-year to represent $350 million in annual GDP for the city.

Local leaders such as Eduardo Mattos of SmartMob Coworking and Eric Santos of Resultados Digitais play an important role in this growth. Earlier this year, 100 Open Startups named 10 companies from Florianópolis in its top-100 list, running the gamut from a solar energy startup (Soluz Energia) to a visual recognition software company (Meerkat) to an information platform for surfers (Opifex). Some people already put Florianópolis ahead of Rio in terms of ecosystem maturity. But if it’s not there already, then ongoing investments intended to consolidate a tech infrastructure that already includes two cyber parks — Alfa and Sapiens Parque — and the skeleton of an “innovation route” along one of the city’s major thoroughfares may soon push Florianópolis over the threshold.

Conclusion

Why have some of Silicon Valley's top investors started investing in Latin America?
Quero Education, an online college marketplace in Brazil, looks to educate U.S. investors
China's Didi looks to Latin America with $100M investment in Brazil-based Uber rival 99
DST leads $80M round in Brazil's Nubank to take on the big boys in financial services
The good news is that Brazilians have long since identified the issues that need to be addressed in order for the country to make the next step as a driver of innovation. According to the World Bank Group, it takes 83.6 days and 4.3 percent of income per capita simply to start a new business. Closing an old one can often be even harder. Labor laws don’t allow for the types of remuneration structures many startups like to rely on, and companies trying to maintain a lean workforce waste precious time and resources navigating the country’s antiquated tax code. None of this would strike anyone who has done even minimal business in Brazil as novel information.
The bad news is that there’s a reason the problems haven’t been fixed, despite universal recognition that they should be. In recent years especially, political infighting and communication breakdown has paralyzed the country, as documented by journalist Anna Heim. Whatever the arguments about the way that conflict was resolved, resolution at least holds the promise of action. President Michel Temer, controversial though he may be, has promised business-friendly reforms that could help unleash the immense latent potential of Brazil’s startup sector.

In the meantime, there are things Brazil’s entrepreneurs can be doing themselves. As in most Latin American countries, Brazilian startups are often little more than mirror copies of models proven elsewhere. That’s fine for doing business on the national level, but if Brazilian startup culture is to project itself beyond its own borders, it needs to follow the example set by the many local entrepreneurs who have contributed genuinely new ideas to the marketplace. The number of business doing just that has ratcheted up with each passing year, and as the country as a whole starts to turn the corner on an economic slump, it’s only a matter of time before Forbes and company are once again writing features on the booming Brazilian startup scene.
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Army moves into Enterprise ..."we have the power of arrest"

CHIEF of Defence Staff Brigadier General Rodney Smart says the Defence Force has “moved troops into” Lion's Gate in Chaguanas to “put a lid on that situation” in Enterprise “with the aim of developing a similar type of model” used “in Laventille with members of the Trinidad and Tobago Police Service.”

And as the nation's military continues to play a more integrated role in law enforcement Smart says, however, “one of the big challenges” in giving military personnel who operate with the police in joint patrols powers of arrest similar to that of the police centres around whether the society wants to have the “Defence Force who is supposed to be your last resort quick response unit being tied down in court”.

He made the comment in an exclusive interview with TV6 News which aired in three parts last week, as Prime Minster Dr Keith Rowley announced on Friday that Defence Force/Police joint patrols would form part of security arrangements for Carnival 2017.

Rowley, who is also the Head of the National Security Council, spoke of the joint patrols in response to a question posed by the United National Congress (UNC) MP for Point-a-Pierre, Dr David Lee, about the specific plans if any the Government intends to implement to protect both local and foreign participants during this Carnival Season and beyond.

The power of joint patrols

In the TV6 News interview, Smart revealed a new joint operation that TV6 News understands was the initiative of National Security Minister Edmund Dillon.

“Enterprise has been on fire for a while and while you're seeing now a simmering of the events we want to make sure that we have put a lid on that situation. So what we've done now. We have moved troops into a community, Lion's Gate community in Chaguanas with the aim of developing a similar type of model that we have used in Laventille with members of the Trindad and Tobago Police Service,” Smart said.

He spoke with TV6 News in his office at the Defence Force Headquarters in Chaguaramas on January 6th.

He said this is model is being replicated in other parts of the country in North and South Trinidad.

In January of last year, he gave an instruction to Brigadier General Smart “to instruct the defence force to operate in conditions determined by them to operate virtually permanently in communities where criminals have armed themselves and have determined that the population is in siege.”

Deploying soldiers to work alongside the police in joint patrols is nothing new and neither is the question of whether policing powers of arrest should be granted to military personnel who operate on those patrols.

A police military or military supporting police?

The People's Partnership administration sought to bring legislation to give soldiers on joint patrols with law enforcement policing powers of arrest.

Asked if such legislation is something he thinks is needed to help put the Defence Force in a better place to assist law enforcement or you satisfied with the existing status quo where they support the police and the police make the arrests, Smart said, “In whichever of those two models you have described there are positives and there are negatives.

Smart says the Coast Guard already has the power to detain people at sea but the issue of granting policing powers to the wider Defence Force must be a discussion for the Government and people of Trinidad and Tobago to have.

“One of the positives is you have more people who can arrest. One of the things we must always remember when we're speaking about arresting powers as well, is to remember each citizen of Trinidad and Tobago, including members of the Defence Force, have the powers to arrest in serious arrestable offences. Each citizen has that power,” Smart said.

He said this includes a citizen's power of arrest for crimes such as murder.

Smart said if a citizen sees “somebody committing murder” the person can make a citizen's arrest.

“The Defence Force can do that without any additional powers,” Smart said.

He said what the society and the Government should consider carefully is what happens if the wider Defence Force is given additional powers to make arrests as the police do.

“One of the big challenges you have is do you want to have your Defence Force who is supposed to be your last resort quick response unit being tied down in court because now you have to go to court, there are cases to be tried, etc, etc. When really what you want; you want your Defence Force to be doing is training and be prepared for those events that would challenge our society,” Smart said.

UNC MP for Oropouche East Dr Roodal Moonilal, a former member of the Cabinet under the PP administration spoke with TV6 News in January of last year just after the Prime Minister gave his instruction for the military to “operate virtually permanently in communities where criminals have armed themselves and have determined that the population is in siege.”

“If you are going to permanently place soldiers on the streets in this country you in effect creating a state of emergency and you are not giving the soldiers the requisite powers to assist properly the police service,” Moonilal said.

No plans for policing powers for soldiers

In February of last year, TV6 News spoke with Dillon about whether the administration plans to bring similar legislation to give soldiers policing powers.

“No we're not looking at that at this point in time. The soldiers, the Defence Force, in particular they are in support of the police and we think that is working quite well,” Dillon said.

Asked if there were plans at least in the foreseeable future to review that particular situation Dillon said, "Let me say there are no immediate plans. it's not something that we're gonna rule out entirely but there is not immediate plans to review that.”

TV6 News was informed by a high ranking Government source yesterday that there has been no change to this policy.

The source said as the Government is monitoring the situation, it continues to be satisfied with the Defence Force/Police joint patrols as is.

Is the Defence Force ready?

The Defence Force, however, was not established for law enforcement.

Smart was asked if the Defence Force was ready for its core mandate of defence given its well-integrated role with law enforcement.

“Certainly, yes. The Defence Force will always be ready for defence. It means though we will have to work our troops harder. We have to find more creative ways in terms of employing them. The challenge that faces Trinidad, the immediate challenge because we always have to separate the threats that we face into immediate, long term, the immediate threat that faces Trinidad and Tobago seems to be crime and therefore the capabilities we have could be used to assist the Police Service and other law enforcement agencies in reducing crime,” Smart said.

What the law says

Section 3 (2) of the Criminal Law Act states “any person may arrest without warrant anyone who is, or whom he, with reasonable cause, suspects to be, in the act of committing an arrestable offence.

Section 3 (3) of the Act states “Where an arrestable offence has been committed, any person may arrest without warrant anyone who is, or whom he, with reasonable cause, suspects to be, guilty of the offence.”

The Criminal law Act defines an arrestable offence in Section 3 (1) which states: “ The powers of summary arrest conferred by the following subsections shall apply to capital offences or offences for which a person (not previously convicted) may, under or by virtue of any written law be sentenced to imprisonment for a term of five years, and to attempts to commit any such offence; and in this Act, including any amendment made by the Law Revision (Miscellaneous Amendments) (No. 1) Act 1979 in any other written law, “arrestable offence” means any such offence or attempt.”

Section 46:2 of the Police Service Act states that “Without prejudice to the powers conferred upon a police officer by subsection (1), a police officer, and all persons whom he may call to his assistance, may arrest without a warrant a person who within view of such police officer commits an offence and whose name or residence is unknown to such police officer and cannot be ascertained by him.”

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The protector is the perpetrator

Sixteen women of Bijapur district of Chattisgarh were raped and violated by the state’s police personnel in October, 2015.

The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) found that the rights of the victims were ‘grossly violated’ by the police for which Chattisgarh government is ‘vicariously liable’.

Last week, video images were captured of Mumbai cops accepting bribes from relatives of inmates to let the relatives meet inmates showing the gory side of corruption in police and jail systems of India.

From being the protector to becoming the perpetrator is downright assault on our democracy.

Over the years, several cases of corruption and wrongdoings by police both in the jail and outside the jail have surfaced and made us question our law keepers.

India Policing: A dilemma
According to a study by Transparency International, 62 per cent of Indians admitted to paying bribe during 2012 - 2013.

Another study by Janaagraha observes that the police in 6 metro cities accepted an estimated Rs 14.6 million in bribes for 7,170 reported cases of bribery in 2013.



The organisation further estimated that a person in India pays around Rs 4 lakhs in bribes in his/her lifetime.

Yet there is another side to the story. Nearly 90 per cent of the police staff currently works for more than eight hours a day and the staff works for more than 14 hours a day.

Nearly half of the police personnel have reported that they are called eight to ten times a month during their off days.

India’s current police to population ratio is 145 personnel per one lakh population, much below the UN prescribed ratio of 222 personnel per one lakh population.

Globally a challenge
Corruption by police and in jails is a challenge globally.

Interestingly, in abroad corruption in jails has been popularised by the spate of television dramas set in correctional facilities. According to a study in the United States, prison guards at Rikers Island in New York could substantially supplement their income by $400 - $900 (Rs 30,000 to Rs 60,000) a day by smuggling drugs, weapons and other contraband into prisons.

Apart from financial bribes, it was found that sexual favours are also traded for better benefits.

The problem is not limited to just officials accepting bribes in prison complexes in the US. There is a structural issue as most prisons in US are run by profit making corporations. Thus, in order to maintain their profits, many people are wrongly imprisoned or kept in prison to increase the bed count by these private organisations.

According to a survey by Transparency International measuring perceptions of the extent of corruption in different Institutions in 107 countries, ranks police as the second most corrupt institution globally.

This clearly indicates that the image of the law protectors around the world is severely scarred with suspicion.

Paradigm Shift
The Indian prime minister recently talked of promoting ‘SMART’ policing, the letters standing for strict or sensitive, modern or mobile, alert or accountable, reliable or responsive, and trained or techno-savvy. The challenge is that when you decide to change course it needs an action that is all encompassing.

It requires hard clampdown on corruption but also needs the reform to treat policemen with the respect that they deserve.

Not like a boys club that operates on internal abuse and coercion.

The police is not the military which has a strict code of conduct and checks and balances. Unlike military, police is constantly exposed to civilians and thus it needs to function in collaboration with the city and it’s people.

The police belongs to the community and should be one with the community.

One needs to understand that policemen are not hired security guards. It is an institution that can help sustain democracy in its truest form.
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The NYPD delivers New York’s safest year yet

Proving yet again that smart policing makes a huge difference, the NYPD in 2016 delivered record lows in crime — continuing a decades-long local trend even as other major US cities lost ground.

The numbers are stunning:

 “Index crime” — the total number of incidents in seven major-offense categories — fell 4.1 percent, to a record low of 101,606. Of those categories, only felony assaults saw a slight rise, up 2 percent.
 Every borough, and most precincts, saw index-crime drops.
 Most impressive: a 12 percent dip in shootings, putting the total at 998 — the first time it fell below 1,000 since the department started collecting stats in the early ’90s.
 Homicides also fell 4.8 percent — to 335, versus 352 in 2015 — a hair above the modern low of 333 in 2014.
But this isn’t merely about numbers; it’s about lives saved, property protected — and giving New Yorkers the peace of mind to go about their daily lives, knowing they’re safe.

This, when cities from Los Angeles to Philadelphia to Baltimore face major crime spikes. Chicago’s murder rate last year was six times New York’s.

Behind the NYPD’s latest success is what Deputy Commissioner Dermot Shea terms a “confluence” of changes: better community engagement under new Commissioner James O’Neill’s “neighborhood policing” initiative, the hiring of 2,000 more cops and greater use of new technology.

It all helps enable “precision policing,” which focuses on hard-core bad guys, as well as a sustained anti-gun effort to, as Shea puts it, make illegal firearms “radioactive.”

Thanks go to the leadership of former Commissioner Bill Bratton and O’Neill, and to the work of the entire force, from other top brass to every cop on the beat.

And ex-Commissioner Ray Kelly, who in 2013 handed over the most professional force in NYPD history.

And, yes, to Mayor de Blasio — who lets New York’s Finest continue to work miracles. For all his past stumbles, the history-making comes on his watch.

Above all, kudos to the men and women in blue for a vital job well done.
news

Hi-tech home appliances can help police crack murder mysteries

LONDON: Fridges, coffee makers, washing machines and lightbulbs could soon become vital witnesses in murder plots, according to a top Scotland Yard official.

The "internet of things" -- in which everyday devices have network connections -- will create a new kind of crime-scene investigation, said Mark Stokes, Scotland Yard's head of digital forensics.

Detectives are being trained to spot digital footprints that might track or record activities, providing a crucial insight into the last moments of a murder victim, evidence of false alibis or inconsistencies in witness statements.

Stokes, who heads the digital, cyber and communications forensics unit at the Metropolitan police, said as household objects became "smart", with built-in microchips and processors, crime investigators would be looking for far more than fingerprints.

He said that complicated devices would soon be commonplace in many homes.

"The crime scene of tomorrow is going to be the internet of things," Stokes was quoted as saying by the Times.

"A 3,000 pounds fridge with a built-in family hub in it will soon be 400 pounds," he said.

The new Samsung Family Hub fridge has cameras that carry a live feed of its contents, as well as a screen and built-in shared calendars, music player and a connected app.

Stokes said the dates and times logged on the machine, as well as images from the camera, could prove crucial in certain cases.

"Wireless cameras within a device such as the fridge may record the movement of suspects and owners," Stokes said.

"Doorbells that connect directly to apps on a user's phone can show who has rung the door and the owner or others may then remotely, if they choose to, give controlled access to the premises while away from the property. All these leave a log and a trace of activity," he said.

Stokes said there were plans to develop a digital forensics kit allowing investigators to analyse microchips and download data at the scene, rather than taking multiple devices away.

In the US, detectives want Amazon to hand over recordings from one of its Echo voice-controlled home entertainment systems. Amazon has twice declined requests for data from the device belonging to James Andrew Bates.
news

Hi-tech home appliances can help police crack murder mysteries

LONDON: Fridges, coffee makers, washing machines and lightbulbs could soon become vital witnesses in murder plots, according to a top Scotland Yard official.

The "internet of things" -- in which everyday devices have network connections -- will create a new kind of crime-scene investigation, said Mark Stokes, Scotland Yard's head of digital forensics.

Detectives are being trained to spot digital footprints that might track or record activities, providing a crucial insight into the last moments of a murder victim, evidence of false alibis or inconsistencies in witness statements.

Stokes, who heads the digital, cyber and communications forensics unit at the Metropolitan police, said as household objects became "smart", with built-in microchips and processors, crime investigators would be looking for far more than fingerprints.

He said that complicated devices would soon be commonplace in many homes.

"The crime scene of tomorrow is going to be the internet of things," Stokes was quoted as saying by the Times.

"A 3,000 pounds fridge with a built-in family hub in it will soon be 400 pounds," he said.

The new Samsung Family Hub fridge has cameras that carry a live feed of its contents, as well as a screen and built-in shared calendars, music player and a connected app.

Stokes said the dates and times logged on the machine, as well as images from the camera, could prove crucial in certain cases.

"Wireless cameras within a device such as the fridge may record the movement of suspects and owners," Stokes said.

"Doorbells that connect directly to apps on a user's phone can show who has rung the door and the owner or others may then remotely, if they choose to, give controlled access to the premises while away from the property. All these leave a log and a trace of activity," he said.

Stokes said there were plans to develop a digital forensics kit allowing investigators to analyse microchips and download data at the scene, rather than taking multiple devices away.

In the US, detectives want Amazon to hand over recordings from one of its Echo voice-controlled home entertainment systems. Amazon has twice declined requests for data from the device belonging to James Andrew Bates.
news

Exclusive: CISF to be the world’s largest aviation security player by 2030, says OP Singh

The Central Industrial Security Force (CISF) that made a humble beginning in 1969 with a small strength of 3,129 men, has witnessed an exponential growth in terms of strength, portfolio and revenue earning. Today, with the latest sanctioned strength of 1.8 lakh armed personnel and 12 battalions, the CISF will be the world’s third largest aviation security expert by 2020. The only security force that earns its own salary, CISF has been aiming to be the largest player in the aviation security market by 2030.
On various aspects of the security force that guards the economic installations of the country, the CISF’s director-general, OP Singh, a 1983 batch IPS officer of Uttar Pradesh cadre spoke to Firstpost in an exclusive interview. Edited excerpts follow:
Prior to your appointment as CISF chief, you had been the National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) chief and had stints in the CRPF and Special Protection Group (SPG). What challenges do you perceive as director-general of CISF?
I have worked with the CISF earlier and was in charge of 59 airports in the country. But it was only for a year. Working in the paramilitary forces is a challenging task and each (unit) has its own different way of performing its duty and dealing with crises and humanitarian work. CISF was created to secure the industrial environment. After the 1956 industrial policy, the country witnessed the emergence of large public sector undertakings (PSUs) and lots of industries. Following economic liberalisation and globalisation, there was a surge in the industrial sector and security of this sector became paramount. It emerged as a futuristic force, where the need was to secure the most sensitive installations and also those sectors like airports, seaports, Metro rail etc that have a direct impact on our economy. Our role is to protect all these vital economic installations in government, public and private sectors. We’re even protecting heritage sites.
How challenging is it for CISF to secure airports, especially after the Kandahar incident in which IA flight IC-814 was hijacked in 1999?
After the hijacking incident, the government decided to revamp airport security system in a big way, when the need was felt to give the responsibility of securing airports to a professional, dedicated and strong force. CISF was assigned the job and we were given the responsibility of Jaipur airport in 2000. Earlier, it was looked after by the state police. Ever since, aviation security was a new and highly challenging assignment for us.
The aviation sector is growing by leaps and bounds, and by 2020, CISF will be the world’s third largest aviation security expert. We’ll be the largest player in the aviation security market by 2030. Besides, aviation security is regulated by international standards and norms; CISF has to catch up with all these challenges.
CISF director-general OP Singh in his office.
How does CISF safeguard sensitive installations in nuclear and space sectors?
Different treatment is required to protect various domains in the country. Here, technological advancement comes into play and therefore besides manual training, CISF goes for technological training, and gadgets become one of our most important USPs. From securing airports to nuclear plants and space centres, we require hi-tech gadgets. We undergo a high level of technological training combined with our soft and hard skills, physical reflexes, armed training, etc. So, CISF is a conglomeration of all these tools and techniques.
What is CISF’s modernisation plan?
Technology is required in various fields of our functioning. For instance, in access control — which is the know-how required to gain access to a particular installation such as an airport building, or in perimeter security — the area of the airport which is banned for public and is under constant patrolling. You need different gadgets for these specialised jobs. For a quick response time to vulnerable and emergency situations like any terror threat, you need quick response teams to protect installations. Then screening and frisking all require technical gadgets. All CISF personnel, whether working in airports or in different fields, undergo specialised training as per requirement. Securing an airport requires different skills than for securing a nuclear power plant.
CISF wants to provide an integrated security solution under a single umbrella.
Is CISF’s backhand operation equally important?
Of course. We provide training on computerisation, monitoring events via CCTV, post-investigation of incidents, analysis of events etc. On the basis of these, ground-level decisions are taken.
After the Mumbai terror attack (26 November) in 2008, what is CISF's brief in combating terror threats?
After Mumbai, the mandate of the force was broadened to provide security cover to private establishments by amending the CISF Act. We have specialised training for anti-terror activities, which is provided to our people in the training institutes based in Madhya Pradesh and Greater Noida. Then we have VIP security. We conduct mock drills at various installations to measure up our preparedness for any such eventuality.
Is CISF providing security to installations based in the Red Corridor that is home to Naxals?
Yes, in a big way. Our men have risen to the occasion by not only providing security to installations against Left-wing extremism but also in managing a big public domain — by providing safety and security to thousands of staff members working in the industrial sector. Our job is to protect all the economic installations like mines, steel and power plants, gas pipelines, rail tracks, etc in the Red Corridor from the Naxal threat looming over them.
Besides the Red Corridor, CISF is deployed in other sensitive areas in Jammu and Kashmir and North Eastern states to provide security to highly vulnerable and critical establishments.

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